1. Why light speed can never be a constant.

1.1. A key figure, an icon, a metaphor and relativity.

When Albert Einstein at the beginning of the twentieth century wrote his theory of relativity, it came as a bombshell in science. Concepts as time and space got a whole new meaning. Light speed became a scientific constant and time became a relative concept. Science wasn’t the way it was before.
The theory of relativity got a place in science and science evolved in theoretical science. The concept of theoretical science came because the theory of relativity was above the normal understanding of science.
Ingenious and man of genius were synonymous with the name Albert Einstein. But also his theory of relativity. There rests some weight on the name.

Having said that, there is a problem that should be addressed. A problem that shines a different light on the theory of relativity.
The equation E=MC² is the equation that rocked science. Mass and energy were in sense the same! E is standing for energy, M for mass, and C represents the chosen constant light speed.
Taking light speed as a constant creates an impossibility, actually, it’s impossible.
A constant should have a fixed value. The value for light speed is “299·792·458 meters per second in a vacuum”. This is a fixed value one could say.
But that is not entirely true. One can take a fixed value for speed but every speed needs a direction. Speed always needs a direction to be measured. The speed of an entity can’t be in more directions at the same time. ( A car can’t drive forward and backwards at the same time.) How else do we know the speed of light and its wavelengths? Length also needs a direction to be determined. Light speed; A scalar quantity is mostly a number. Very useful in mathematics but it does not reflect the observations.

The direction is a variable and always is a variable, that’s because all directions make up space. Space can only be defined by the existence of all directions. Having only one direction eliminates the concept of space. This means it also eliminates mass, thus gravity, thus space-time continuum!
Space is all directions and therefore you can’t take a direction in the square.
It is remarkable that Albert Einstein joints time with speed, which in a sense means making time a relative concept by giving it a direction. By doing this Albert Einstein contradicts himself. Wasn’t he not imagining riding on a light wave and how the world would look?

Albert Einstein’s theory is a result of the discoveries of his time and the theory of relativity wasn’t loose of physics, despite its impossibility. Astrophysics was examining the universe and its mechanisms. This object of study in astrophysics remains until this day and has resulted in many complementary theories.
A big part of the study is finding constants, values that are used in equations and are to determine the universe.

Albert Einstein is a physicist. As said before, it is not just a thought to make light speed a constant and make the concept of time relative. He also was searching for solutions for problems science faced. He also ended his life with questions he couldn’t answer.

1.2. Where direction and speed rule.

There is a lot written about the findings studying the universe at the beginning of the last century. On the internet, you can learn about Lorentz-transformation, the Hubble constant, the characteristics of electromagnetic waves, and more.
All measurements are through observations of the universe. The common factors in these observations are light speed and the direction where the light is coming from.
Light reaches the observer from a light source. With these observations are movements in space determined.
Direction and speed rule in the observations we do, by electromagnetic waves.

1.3. Order in direction and speed.

When all things are moving, is it possible to determine orientation, even when the observer self is moving? The limitations of space are undetermined. Space could be called endless. Where do you start??

Note. When navigating on a boat over the water you can measure its speed in knots. That is the speed related to the water. The water itself can stream, which means that the speed of the boat also can be measured in relation to the bottom of the water. This shall result in a different speed. Knowing that the earth rotates creates a different equation.

Speed is a relative concept. Indispensable for measuring speed is the direction of the speed. Constant speed in a straight line means distance in a certain time.

Image 1. Directions of movements from a single starting point can be influenced by a movement in a common direction for all.

In the universe, it is hard to define an absolute direction. The example with the boat made that clear. One thing is certain, speed in a direction needs to have a starting point to determine that speed. This starting point itself can be moving, so the speed is relative to that starting point. The two directions combined will give a common direction also in a straight line. Distance in space means distance in a straight line, distance in one direction.

Direction and speed are inseparable and therefore are most valuable for the sake of orientation.

1.4. Order by direction and speed.

The universe is not an empty space. Through electromagnetic waves, we observe planets, stars, nebulae and galaxies. Electromagnetic waves speed in straight lines through space. That is absolutely necessary to get a clear image of for instance a galaxy, otherwise, the image would be a blur. (Note the distortion of the atmosphere when watching the moon through a telescope)

The movements of matter don’t have this restricted rule. The movements of planets, stars, nebulae and galaxies are related to gravitation. Gravitation is the course of why these movements aren’t in a straight line or in a single direction. Rotating movements are common in the universe. The shapes of many galaxies show these rotating movements.
The space in which matter and electromagnetic waves move, can’t show movements by itself. It would lead to distortions of the visible, directions couldn’t be determined.
So, there is a fundamental difference between the movements of matter and the movements of electromagnetic waves.

Full-screen animation

A light source will spread light in all directions. When the light source is in a rotational movement, the source is constantly changing direction. Because light itself doesn’t change direction, the light becomes relative to the rotation speed. This speed has the direction at the time the light left its source. The speed of the rotation will be a relative factor, not the rotation itself.


Image 2. The spreading light is as a total moving in a single direction.

So light of a light source spreads at any given moment in all directions. The movement of the light source will be effective in a straight line as a relative factor any given moment.
The starting points of the light waves are constantly changing because of the rotation of the light source.

Image 3. Expanding circles representing light waves in all directions. The radius is equal to the time the waves left there source. The arrow represents the speed the source was travelling at.

The departing light waves on a single moment will have travelled the same distance after a certain time. This can be visualised by an expanding sphere. When the light source is changing direction afterwards, it will have no effect on the behaviour of the expanding sphere. There is no connection between waves and their source. Waves only travel is straight lines and the relative movement does also.

Note. It is comparable with a planet that loses the gravitational pull of the star he turns around. The planet moves in the direction at the speed of the rotation when it lost the gravitational pull. The connection between star and planet has been lost.

With this in mind, it is possible to visualise the effect of speed and direction observing the universe. This gives an orientation through direction and speed. Keep in mind that matter and electromagnetic waves move differently in space.